How to create a traceback object in Python

I've been writing a library for errorhandling when calling Rust code from Python. One peculiar challenge I faced was when I wanted to have stacktraces that look like this:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/examples/python/shippai_example/", line 17, in authenticate
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/python/shippai/", line 110, in check_exception
    _raise_with_more_frames(exc, frames)
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/python/shippai/", line 228, in _raise_with_more_frames
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/examples/python/rust/c/_cffi_backend.c", line 3025, in cdata_call
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/examples/python/rust/../src/x86/ffi64.c", line 525, in ffi_call
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/examples/python/rust/src/", line 43, in authenticate
    let res = authenticate_impl(
  File "/home/untitaker/projects/shippai/examples/python/rust/src/", line 27, in shippai_example__authenticate_impl__h040a48b77826a8f4
    return Err(MyError::UserWrong.into());
shippai.UserWrong: Invalid username

So when we call some Rust code from Python, and the Rust code fails, we get this merged traceback with the Rust frames stitched onto it. To me personally this kind of error reporting is very appealing. If you think this is too much magic, you will not like what comes next. We'll explore how to do exactly that, how to add extra frames to a traceback object.

The Jinja templating engine has the same problem and its author Armin solved it extremely thoroughly. This article is about a simpler version, and documents some known flaws. If you attempt to properly fix those, you'll probably end up with code similar to Jinja's. But there's a chance you'll be able to work around them in a simpler way that just fits your usecase.

Tracebacks in Python are just objects. Unfortunately creating them is not directly possible:

>>> try:
...     1/0
... except:
...     import sys
...     tb = sys.exc_info()[-1]
>>> cls = type(tb)
>>> cls()
TypeError: cannot create 'traceback' instances

However, tb is already a traceback object. Printing its frames shows it's not quite where we want it yet:

>>> import traceback
>>> traceback.print_tb(tb)
File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>

Let's say we want to append the frame File "", line 3, in foofun. We can do it like this:

>>> filename = ''
>>> location = 'foofun'
>>> linenumber = 3
>>> code = compile('{}def {}(): 1/0'.format('\n' * (linenumber - 1), location), filename, 'exec')
>>> namespace = {}
>>> exec(code, namespace)
>>> foofun = namespace['foofun']
>>> foofun()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "", line 3, in foofun
ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

The last frame now has a non-Python filename and linenumber like we wanted. How to append more frames? By eval-ing more code:

>>> filename = ''
>>> location = 'barfun'
>>> linenumber = 4
>>> code = compile('{}def {}(): foofun()'.format('\n' * (linenumber - 1), location), filename, 'exec')
>>> namespace = {'foofun': foofun}
>>> exec(code, namespace)
>>> barfun = namespace['barfun']
>>> barfun()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "", line 3, in foofun
  File "", line 4, in barfun
ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

Using this technique you can already construct arbitrary tracebacks:

  1. Create one codeobject (or function) that raises the exception.
  2. For each frame, create a new codeobject (or function) that calls the previous one.

This code has a few problems:

That's it for now. I'll eventually write a follow-up to this blogpost where we explore fixes for both problems. It will probably involve creating our own code objects, like Jinja does.

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